Tesla, Data Transfers, & China’s Digital Economy

Image: Gerd Altmann, Binary Contacts (Publicdomainpictures.net)

5月中旬,上海自由贸易区(“自贸区”)临港新片区发布试行措施,允许该片区符合条件的企业(所用标准意味着特斯拉具备资格)输出某些数据时无需经过中国复杂的审批流程。5月初,天津自贸区也采取了类似措施,预计中国其他自贸区也会效仿。这些措施对在华外国投资者非常有利。然而,发布这些措施的根本目标不仅是增加中国国内的外商投资,而是落实中国在全球发展数字经济的计划。Read more

WeRide Zooms into the Global Autonomous Vehicle Industry

Image: Petr Kratochvil, Busy Road Light Trails (Publicomainpictures.net)

比亚迪宣布获得在中国高速道路上测试3级(即“有条件自动化”)自动驾驶的牌照后,该公司进军自动驾驶车辆行业的雄心已然清晰。然而,比亚迪在这个行业的成功之路不太可能一帆风顺,这是由于来自具有深厚行业基础的先行者文远知行的竞争。文远知行的技术已达到4级(即“高度驾驶自动化”),故多项创新产品已投入运营,其中包括自动驾驶出租车(Robotaxis)、自动驾驶小巴(Robobuses)和自动驾驶货运车(Robovans)。什么因素促使文远知行的成功?凭借她研究中国企业尤其是中国科技企业的丰富经验,以及她与熟悉中国自动驾驶车辆行业的专家的会面,刘琳在本文中分享了她的分析。Read more

Tesla, Data Transfers, & China’s Digital Economy

Image: Gerd Altmann, Binary Contacts (Publicdomainpictures.net)

In mid-May, the Lin-Gang Area of the Shanghai Free Trade Zone (“FTZ”) issued trial measures to allow eligible companies in the area—criteria used suggest that Tesla is eligible—to export certain data without going through China’s complicated approval system. Similar measures were adopted by Tianjin’s FTZ in early May, while other FTZs in China are expected to follow suit. These measures can benefit foreign investors in China significantly. Yet, the fundamental goal of their issuance is not a mere increase in domestic foreign investment, but rather the implementation of China’s plan to develop its digital economy globally.Read more

WeRide Zooms into the Global Autonomous Vehicle Industry

Image: Petr Kratochvil, Busy Road Light Trails (Publicomainpictures.net)

After BYD announced that it has licenses to test Level-3 (i.e., “conditional automation”) autonomous driving on high-speed roads in China, the company’s ambition to move into the autonomous vehicle industry has become clear. However, BYD’s path to success in this industry is unlikely to be smooth because of competition from WeRide, a forerunner with a strong foundation in the industry. Equipped with Level-4 (i.e., “high driving automation”) technology, WeRide has put into operation multiple innovative products, including Robotaxis, Robobuses, and Robovans. What factors contribute to WeRide’s success? Drawing on her extensive experiences in studying Chinese companies, especially those in the technology industry, and her meetings with specialists who are familiar with the autonomous vehicle industry in China, Lin Liu shares her analysis in this article.Read more

The Moon, Artificial Intelligence, & U.S.-China Relations

Image: Irina Pechkareva, A Space with the Moon (Publicdomainpictures.net)

尽管中国被美国排除在该国的太空项目之外,但中国正在进行的从月球背面收集岩石和土壤的任务标志着中国太空探索的另一个里程碑。这一成就应该让美国政策制定者思考,采取类似的排除做法是否会有助或损害美国为了在中美人工智能竞赛中确保领先地位而付出的努力。更重要的是,鉴于人工智能操纵的潜在灾难性后果,我们需要一种更好的做法,专注于在全球范围内创造利益,而不是让情况演变成两个国际大国之间简单的输赢竞赛。Read more

The Moon, Artificial Intelligence, & U.S.-China Relations

Image: Irina Pechkareva, A Space with the Moon (Publicdomainpictures.net)

China’s ongoing mission to collect rocks and soil from the far side of the Moon marks another milestone in the country’s space exploration despite its exclusion from U.S. space projects. This accomplishment should make U.S. policymakers ponder whether adopting a similar exclusionary approach will help or hurt the United States’s efforts to secure the lead in the U.S.-China AI race. More importantly, the potential catastrophic consequences of AI manipulation demand a better approach that focuses on generating benefits at a global level, rather than devolving into a simple win-lose race between two international powers.Read more

In Brief

Image: Gerd Altmann, Binary Thinking (Publicdomainpictures.net)

上周五我向访问华盛顿特区的中国律师代表团发表关于人工智能法律工具的演讲。OpenAI近日的戏剧性变化让此预先计划好的演讲出乎意料地及时。OpenAI对首席执行官山姆·阿尔特曼(Sam Altman)的解雇和重新聘用引发了大家深入讨论这些工具所带来的机会和担忧。就中国而言,中国领导层可能会得出这样的结论:这些工具带来的机会大于担忧,并会采取一些可以直接帮助开发更可靠的人工智能法律工具的措施,而这些措施可间接为该国带来有效的法律改革。Read more

In Brief

Image: Gerd Altmann, Binary Thinking (Publicdomainpictures.net)

The OpenAI drama made my preplanned talk on AI legal tools delivered last Friday to a delegation of Chinese lawyers visiting Washington D.C. unexpectedly timely. The firing and re-hiring of CEO Sam Altman inspired in-depth discussions of opportunities and concerns related to these tools. In the case of China, the Chinese leadership may come to the conclusion that the opportunities presented by these tools outweigh the concerns and move to take steps that can directly help develop more reliable AI legal tools and indirectly bring about effective legal reforms in the country.Read more

SinoForum&Foresight

Image: Gerd Altmann, The Age Of AI Has Begun, Publicdomainpictures.net

2023年3月,百度推出文心一言,冀与ChatGPT和同类型的人工智能产品争夺市场份额。文心一言等人工智能产业可以在中国走得多远,与相关的中国政策和法律规定息息相关。广州、深圳、上海率先根据国家政策制定地方性法规,以各自特别的方式发展人工智能产业。外资进入中国人工智能市场应该选择哪个城市?Read more

SinoForum&Foresight

Image: Gerd Altmann, The Age Of AI Has Begun, Publicdomainpictures.net

To compete with ChatGPT and similar AI products for market share, Baidu launched ERNIE Bot in March 2023. How far ERNIE Bot and other AI industries will be able to develop in China depends on Chinese policies and legislation on AI. Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai have taken the lead to formulate their local regulations in accordance with China’s national policies and have been developing AI industries in their own special ways. Which city should foreign investors choose to enter China’s AI market?Read more

In Brief

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中国提出了通过“加快建设数字经济、数字社会、数字政府”等工作来建设“数字中国”的目标。“数字政府”在这些数字举措中的作用一直不明确,直到有关该主题的重要文件于2022年6月发布时,这一点才变得清晰。该文件亦让人瞥见,在即将召开的中共二十大会议闭幕后,中国新一届领导层领航中国时很可能会继续采取的发展方向。Read more

In Brief

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China has set a goal to construct “digital China” by, inter alia, “accelerating the construction of a digital economy, a digital society, and a digital government”. The role of China’s “digital government” in these digital initiatives was not clear until a significant document on the topic was issued in June 2022. The document further provides a glimpse of the direction that the new Chinese leadership will likely continue when they are at the helm after the conclusion of the forthcoming Chinese Communist Party’s 20th National Congress.Read more

In Brief

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Since late 2021, China has been pushing the development of the Metaverse and expressing its keen interest in joining the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement, which was signed by Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore in June 2020. These efforts and their latest developments, together with President XI Jinping’s current visit to Central Asia, help show China’s strategic preparations for the future.Read more

In Brief

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《数据出境安全评估办法》(“《办法》”)自9月1日起实施,预计将引发一系列由国家互联网信息办公室(“网信办”)进行的安全评估。任何“数据处理者”计划将其在中国境内收集和产生的“重要数据”出境到其他国家,都必须通过网信办的安全评估。如果未能通过安全评估,数据处理者是否可以在法庭上质疑网信办的决定?Read more

In Brief

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The coming into effect of the Measures for the Security Assessment of Outbound Data Transfers (the “Measures”) on September 1 is expected to trigger a series of security assessments conducted by the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”). Any “data processor” planning to transfer to another country “important data” collected and generated inside China is required to pass the CAC’s security assessment. If the CAC decides against the data processor, can the CAC’s decision be challenged in court? Read more

In Brief

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美国联邦最高法院最近关于堕胎和枪支管制问题的裁决引起了全世界的关注。有趣的是,在地球的另一端,中国国家立法机构关于地方性法规与国家宪法不符的决定(从而引发了该地方性法规的修改)几乎没有引起人们的注意。这决定是关于什么的?它是如何作出的?这样一个说明中国立法的宪法审查的典型事例,如何才能更好地被人认识并产生更积极的影响?Read more

In Brief

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Recent rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court on issues concerning abortion and firearm regulation have drawn worldwide attention. Interestingly, on the other side of the globe, a decision by China’s national legislature that a local regulation was inconsistent with the country’s constitution (thereby triggering an amendment to the local regulation) has gone almost unnoticed. What was the decision about? How was it made? How can such an exemplary instance illustrating the constitutional review of Chinese legislation be better known and used to produce more positive impact? Read more